Geplaatst op Geef een reactie

MAAI MEI NIET IS TERUG!

 

Wist je dat die heerlijke geur van versgemaaid gras eigenlijk een verdedigingsmechanisme is van de natuur? Op die manier waarschuwen grassprieten de rest van je tuin. Voor Knack is het meteen een noodkreet voor meer biodiversiteit. Daarom lanceren we opnieuw Maai Mei Niet. Geef je grasmaaier een maandje rust en zie planten, bloemen en insecten voor je ogen opleven.

Geplaatst op

Kalkhennepbouw

Bouwtechniek, Decoratie-interieur, Kalkhennepbouw

Hoewel hennep een zeer multifunctioneel materiaal is gebleken doorheen de eeuwen, is kalkhennepbouw een recent gegeven. Sinds de jaren 30 van de vorige eeuw werden de traditionele hennepplantages verbannen door grootindustriëlen die liever hun eigen katoen en later synthetische stoffen de markt zagen domineren dan de alom gebruikte hennepvezel. De ‘narcotica’ harsrijke bloemen waren een gemakkelijke smoes om de visie over hennep danig te manipuleren.

Jammer, want de hennepplant is zoveel meer dan zijn bloesem. Zowat alle onderdelen van de plant werden eeuwen gebruikt om touwen te maken, zelfs linnen en zeilen, om af te dichten, als papier, enz.. De hennepplant is een plant die snel groeit (zelfs in dorre streken) , bodems zuivert en pesticiden overbodig maakt, en die we helemaal kunnen benutten.

Het was pas midden jaren 80 dat er een soort van revival plaatsvond. Het paste ‘natuurlijk’ in een beweging waarin men op zoek ging naar originele, pure en lokale materialen.

kalkhennepbeton

Ecomat verdeelt hennepscheven van Biofibat van Cavac uit de Vendée en de HES-scheven, eveneens uit Noord Frankrijk. De onderkenning van de kwaliteiten van de plant en zijn historische wortels in onze landbouwcultuur, zet vooral de Waalse overheid aan om initiatieven rond deze plant te ondersteunen. In Vlaanderen werkt Grow2Build al enkele jaren aan een imagocampagne voor de verstoten plant. Waar nodig vullen we de voorraad aan met hennepscheven uit Frankrijk. Daar zijn het lokale boeren die massaal hennep zijn beginnen telen als wisselcultuur voor andere gewassen. Verder is er ook een grote internationale beweging die hennep als gewas promoot voor nieuwe of vernieuwde toepassingen. 

In Zwitserland werd al 20 jaar geleden Hemp Eco Systems (HES) opgericht door Jorgen Hempel. Hij zag al snel alle voordelen in van het gebruik van hennep voor de bouw en wilde een platform zijn voor hempfanaten, aannemers en architecten allerlei om samen de hennepkalkbouw verder te ontwikkelen en op de kaart te zetten. Vooral onder zijn impuls staan er nu tientallen gebouwen zelfs grote publieke gebouwen recht, volledig in kalkhennepbouw opgetrokken. Ecomat verdeelt eveneens de HES-productenlijn.

kalkhennepblok

Daarnaast verdelen we voor de kalkhennepbouw ook de blokken van Isohemp. Deze geperste blokken worden na hun vorming gedroogd op een zo natuurlijk mogelijk wijze en van fabriek naar werf getransporteerd.

Deze leverancier biedt zelfs voor overbrugging van openingen in de gevel gewapende lintelen aan met een kern van staal en cement maar omhult met een isolerende kalkhennep isolatielaag! Zulke blokken worden gelijmd met een kalkmortel zoals Tubag RLM of de mortellijm van Isohemp.

geschiedenis

Frankrijk is dus de wieg van de moderne bouwwijze van kalkhennep. In de champagnestreek stonden vele oude vakwerkwoningen. Deze vakken waren traditioneel gevuld met stro, leem en kiezels. In de loop van vorige eeuw werden vele gerenoveerd met cementgebaseerde mortels of pleisters. Die brachten veel schade aan de woningen, doordat ze het ademend karakter van de vroegere mortels met stro totaal verstoorden. Velen waren dan ook klaar voor de sloop.

Drie namen zijn zowat de pioniers in de moderne kalkhennepbouw. Périer, Boyeux en Kühn waren de eersten om te de combinatie van kalk met hennepscheven te gaan gebruiken als opvulmateriaal voor verwoeste vakwerkvullingen. En hun oplossing vond al heel snel navolging over heel Frankrijk.

We mengen hennepscheven dus met kalk mengen om te komen tot een ‘hempcrete’ of ‘kalkhennepbeton’. In het Vlaams zeggen we eerder gewoon kalkhennep want er komt helemaal geen cement of kiezel bijkijken.

De mengeling van kalk en hennepscheven is net wat we zoeken in het bio-ecologisch bouwen : het heeft de flexibiliteit en de poreusheid die nodig is voor zijn functie en voldoet aan de normen van een bio-ecologisch materiaal.

4 mengformules en méér

De kalk die gebruik wordt voor een kalkhennepmengeling is enerzijds luchtkalk met een verharder of hydraulische kalk met luchtdrogende eigenschappen. De basisregel is dat luchtkalk voor isolatiedoeleinden de beste oplossing is, maar dat je voor de sterke uitharding of de regenbestendigheid een puzzolaan of verharder of gewoon hydraulische kalk toevoegt.

Je vindt online dan ook talloze formules voor een chaux-chanvre. Het klimaat in de Auvergne is anders dan het klimaat aan onze Belgische kust. Biochanvre van Saint Astier voeren we als basismengeling die in ons klimaat voor alle toepassingsgebieden geschikt is zodat je je hierom geen zorgen hoeft te maken. Eigen mengelingen zijn ook mogelijk met Saint Astier semi-hydraulische kalken, Supercalco met trasmeel, of de formule van HES (Hemp Eco Systems).

Vier toepassingsgebieden kunnen we onderscheiden die elk een eigen kalkhennep-verhouding vereisen.

Lichtgewicht kalkhennep als isolatie in het dak, tussenvloeren of scheidingsmuren in huis. Een tweede toepassing is kalkhennep voor de buitenmuren en een derde voor de benedenvloeren. Kalkhennepstuc als ‘warme’ bepleistering is dan de laatste toepassing.

isolatiehennep

dakhennep : waar kalkhennep vooral een isolerende functie krijgt, is de interne structuur minder van belang en meng je niet méér dan 10% kalk onder de massa, net genoeg om de kalkscheven te bedekken met een laagje en ze aan elkaar te ‘lijmen’ tot een zachte massa.

muurhennep : voeg tot 25% kalk toe aan het volume als de kalkhennep windkrachten moet doorstaan en het gebouw meer sterkte en stijfheid moet brengen. Er moet dus voldoende kalk aanwezig zijn om sterk te worden maar niet te veel om isolerend te blijven.

vloerhennep : als je kalkhennep wil gebruiken als isolatiemateriaal onder een benedenvloer en als die voldoende drukvast en stabiel moet zijn om op een kiezellaag aangebracht te worden en toch bijvoorbeeld terracotta tegels of een kalkchape te dragen, zal de mengeling ongeveer half om half uit kalk en uit hennepscheven bestaan.

hennepstuc : als je wil stuccen met kalkhennep zal er voldoende kalk in de massa moeten zitten om een smeuïge mortel te maken en om de hennepmassa te kunnen strijken tot een werkbare pleister. Hier ligt het aandeel kalk zo rond de 85 tot 90%. Soms voegt men wel wat gemalen kalksteen toe om het water iets langer vast te houden wanneer de pleister te snel zou uitdrogen. Soms gebruikt me ook de kleinere kalkpartikels om een zeer fijne stucco te maken.

voordelen

  • kalk en hennep zijn overal ter wereld lokaal beschikbare bouwmaterialen
  • kalk en hennep nemen beide op hun beurt (in groeifase en versteenfase) heel veel CO2 op
  • kalk en hennep zijn beide bio-ecologische bouwmaterialen
  • kalk en hennep zijn in combinatie nog sterker
  • kalk en hennep zijn in combinatie laag effusief en worden ervaren als een warme combinatie.
  • kalk en hennep dragen bij tot een juiste balans van relatieve vochtigheid in je woning
  • kalk en hennep beschermen actief het ongekapselde constructiehout van het skelet
  • kalk en hennep besparen in bekistingsplaten doordat je deze bekisting opschuift naargelang je aanstampt.
  • kalk en hennep beschermen je tegen UTMS stralingen
  • kalk en hennep zijn levende materialen tot de hennepscheven fossileren en de kalk terug versteent
  • kalk en hennep zijn daardoor volledig herbruikbaar
  • kalk en hennep zijn in combinatie onbrandbaar

nadelen

  • kalkhennep als vulling van muren en daken, heeft veel tijd nodig om volledig uit te drogen : des te meer kalk en dus water er aan toegevoegd dient te worden naargelang de toepassing, des te langer de uitdroogtijd
  • kalk is alkalisch : pas op voor brandwonden aan je handen als je er de hele dag in ploetert
  • kalk vergt grijze energie om gebrand te worden ; hennep is net een CO2 terugdraaiend onderdeel ; de combinatie van de twee houdt een balans die nog zeer bio-ecologisch en duurzaam kan genoemd worden.
  • de combinatie van kalk en hennep heeft een isolatiewaarde die dubbel zo laag is dan reguliere isolatie, dus je dient even dikke muren te voorzien als bij strobalenbouw om aan normen te voldoen

afwerking

Kalkhennep behoeft eigenlijk geen echte bescherming langs buiten als er voldoende hydraulische kalk in vermengd wordt of wanneer de mengeling voldoende beschermd wordt tijdens de verhardingsfase.

Wens je deze toch af te werken aan de buitenzijde, raden wij vooral een NHL-kalkbepleistering (Tubag of Saint Astier) of een geformuleerde kalkpleister (Tubag FLP-L). Uiteraard kan een dampopen gevelbekleding ook zoals een houten gevelbekleding, een muurtuin of desnoods gevelpannen. Wens je gewoon te schilderen, dan is een Calcatex kalkverf of een Calco verf van Galtane of RC kalei ideaal zolang je deze nat-in-nat toepast of zolang je deze voldoende kan laten uitdrogen alvorens er regenslag aan kan. Verf je pas later, gebruik dan beter een silicaatverf van Quick-Mix.

Aan de binnenzijde hoeft er ook geen bescherming op, maar zou je kunnen afwerken met dezelfde kalkcaseïneverf, een luchtkalkpleister zoals de Tubag HKP en KFP of Interchaubric van Saint Astier. Leempleisters zoals de Tierrafino Base en Finish zijn eveneens een mooie en functionele afwerking.

nog meer info kan je lezen in een artikel van Vibe

Bron: Kalkhennepbouw

Geplaatst op Geef een reactie

Hennep zuivert de lucht

Hennep zuivert de lucht

Widt je dat voor elke ton hennep die groeit, dat er bij benadering 1,6 ton CO2 uit de atmosfeer wordt gehaald?  

De mogelijkheden zijn dan ook talrijk.  Zowel wat betreft productiemogelijkheden als naar oplossingen toe voor kwalitatieve luchtzuivering.  Plant hennep.

"We harvested around 750 tonnes of hemp this year, offsetting around 1,200 tonnes of CO2. That's enough to cover 160 average households for a full year - or one household for 160 years! 🌱"

Geplaatst op

Building with hemp

 

When it comes to construction, we’re used to hearing words like concrete, cement, reinforcing steel, mineral wool, and polystyrene blocks. But hemp? Not so much. This is the story of a Ukrainian startup that produces building materials from industrial hemp and is already exporting its technology abroad.

During the concrete production phase alone, a house made from 100 cubic metres of concrete emits up to 20 tonnes of CO2 into the atmosphere. That’s the same amount that a car emits over a distance of 100 000 kilometres.

CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2)
One of the greenhouse gases that play a part in shaping our planet’s climate, its concentration in the atmosphere has steadily increased since the beginning of the industrial revolution in the 20th century. There is not enough time for plants and oceans to absorb these vast amounts of CO2, which disrupt the carbon cycle and may accelerate uncontrolled climate change.

Eco-friendly (or green) construction differs from standard construction processes in that it creates far less waste during the production of building materials, and consumes less energy in all the phases of a building’s life: construction, operation, repair, and demolition.

Since 2014, increasing numbers of eco-friendly construction firms have sprung up in Ukraine: LifeHouseBuilding specialises in timber-frame houses made from straw panels; Neoacre builds houses with thermal insulation and a hermetic shell, which produce energy using solar panels; the startup PassivDom creates modular homes that are completely autonomous from the electricity and gas networks.

 

Houses from hemp

 

The company Hempire has been producing ecological building material from industrial hemp since 2015. Its founder Serhii Kovalenkov believes that with time, the trend for “green” homes will only continue to grow in Ukraine:

— We are not the only company building eco-homes in Ukraine. There are companies that use thatch and reed as materials for construction. There is a lot of potential in this area, since people are beginning to wonder what kind of conditions their families, their children are going to live in. We need to help each other, not compete against each other.

The materials used in eco-friendly construction are based on natural components, or raw materials that do not emit toxic substances. These might be wood, thatch, hemp, bamboo, rammed earth, mushroom mycelium, to name but a few.

Industrial hemp shives, previously considered as a waste product of fabric and rope production, can actually serve as a valuable raw material and an alternative to conventional insulation, such as mineral wool or foam.

HEMP SHIVES OR HEMP HURD
The woody inner parts of the hemp stalk that are obtained during first processing.

Industrial hemp is a type of hemp with an extremely low level of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). According to the Criminal Code of Ukraine, industrial hemp is not a narcotic drug and is allowed for cultivation and use, as its THC content does not exceed the legal limit of 0.08%. For comparison, the maximum THC content permitted in most European countries is 0.2%.

TETRAHYDROCANNABINOL
The main psychoactive constituent of cannabis.

Products made from industrial hemp can be found in almost every home: from tow fibre to paper. Up to 60% of hemp fibre is used in the pulp and paper industry. The seeds are widely used in the food industry, and the oil is used in cosmetics.

Hemp yields more plant mass per year than a 50-year-old forest, actively absorbing carbon dioxide. During the growing season, one hectare of hemp can absorb up to ten tonnes of CO2 from the atmosphere.

Serhii Kovalenkov shows a photograph of one of the stages involved in building a dome, using a mix containing industrial hemp.

In the 1960s, 100 000 hectares of hemp were planted in Ukraine. Subsequently, the number of plantations began to decline rapidly due to the focus on the plant’s narcotic content. In that same period, a series of regulations restricting or prohibiting the cultivation of hemp were being adopted worldwide. These included the UN Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961, and the Convention on Psychotropic Substances of 1971.

According to the Bast Crops Research Station in Hlukhiv (part of Ukraine’s National Academy of Agrarian Sciences), Ukrainian growers were the first in the world to develop a variety of hemp that contained little to no THC, in the second half of the 20th century. This is the variety we now call industrial hemp.

Until 2012, industrial hemp could only be grown in Ukraine under severely restricted conditions. Plantations had to be guarded, which increased the cost of production by 30%. The overall surface area sown with this crop decreased to 270 hectares nationwide. However, in August 2012, the Cabinet of Ministers adopted a decree simplifying the growing conditions. As of 2016, hemp was cultivated over a surface area of almost five thousand hectares, a figure that is gradually increasing.

A licence is required to grow industrial hemp in Ukraine, and it is permitted to sow only those varieties listed in the State Register of Plant Varieties permitted for dissemination in Ukraine. At present, there are 12 varieties of hemp on the list.

 

Instead of Concrete

Hempire has developed a material called Hempire-mix, which can be used as insulation, or as a replacement for concrete and bricks. It is made from the crushed stems of industrial hemp (hemp shives), water, and a lime-based binding agent, without any toxic ingredients. To produce this insulation material, the ingredients need to be mixed quickly enough to install the formwork around the parts of the frame, and the mixture needs to be tamped down to a thickness of 10-15 centimetres.

 

The uniqueness of Hempire-mix is in the binding agent, which does not contain cement: “hempcrete” is already used by various companies worldwide, but can be mixed according to slightly different formulas.

Serhii Kovalenkov graduated from Carleton University in Ottawa with a degree in civil engineering, and spent several years managing construction projects in Canada, the USA and Switzerland.

While helping to build houses in Australia, Serhii learned about the use of hemp in construction. He gained experience with the material on several projects, and realised that he could develop his own, cement-free recipe for the mixture. Hemp insulation that contains cement cannot be recycled or reused after it hardens (or to do so would be very expensive). However, a mixture made solely from natural ingredients can be ground, recycled, and added to a new insulation mix.

— It’s my life’s work. I see that we can produce high-quality, energy efficient materials from organic raw materials in Ukraine. Once someone said to us: “What are you doing this for? Mix the hemp with cement and you’ll be fine!” But we have chosen another path, a more painful one.

The company founder says that a hemp mix for construction has many benefits. It is not only environmentally friendly, but also energy-efficient:

— One of the advantages of these homes is how much you’ll save on heating and cooling. This insulation can regulate the humidity level, accumulate heat and then get rid of it. It also provides very effective soundproofing.

Serhii recalls the questions and doubts his business raised, given that this technology is relatively new to Ukraine:

— The first question from potential customers was whether any such projects had ever been implemented in Ukraine before. And we weren’t able to show them anything.

By the start of 2020, Hempire had already implemented up to 60 projects in Ukraine, the USA, Poland, and Sweden. In California, they made a home on wheels from local raw materials mixed with Ukrainian binding agent.

— The hemp is ours, from Ukraine. From the beginning, our task has been to use domestically-produced materials for our building, so as not to depend on imports. The number of fields in Ukraine is increasing every year, as well as the number of farms. So there are no issues with hemp these days.

Even in recycled form, hemp reduces a building’s carbon footprint, since Hempire-mix continues to absorb CO2 even while it hardens:

— We see that the insulation material becomes harder with every minute, and stronger with every passing day. And then it turns into a kind of stone, which we plaster with lime or clay.

Hemp can be used to insulate building facades, floors, foundations, and roofs. This kind of insulation is just as suitable for private homes as it is for offices, schools, and kindergartens.

— We plan to develop new hemp-based building materials to insulate multi-storey buildings. This is a very big problem in Ukraine: there are so many concrete buildings that need to be insulated. We are already developing slabs for this, and have prepared samples.

Thanks to their latest formula for recyclable natural insulation material, Hempire has received a “Climate Innovation Voucher” for the development of green technology, which is part of the grant programme of the EBRD (European Bank for Reconstruction and Development), funded by the European Union. This will allow them to obtain certificates for further entry into local and European markets. Serhii Kovalenkov says the team will soon receive protocols for laboratory testing that will allow the insulation to receive certifications.

— When gas prices went up, Ukrainians came to understand the meaning of the term “energy efficiency”. Since 2014, a great number of startups have appeared in Ukraine, particularly in this field. People here are beginning to realise that we can do everything ourselves.

 

Green homeowners

Dmytro Tereshchenko is one of Hempire’s first clients: he enlisted them to complete the second floor of his house using this new technology. Having lived there with his family for two years, Dmytro noticed the difference in insulation between the first and second floors. The first storey was very cold, and the second one conserved the heat much longer.

– When I was building the house, sustainability was my first priority. My second was comfort.

During the first stage of construction, he did have doubts about the durability of a building like this:

– In November, when we covered the second floor, and it was already frosty outside, I had some doubts. I was looking at the holes in the wall, and my wife said, “That’s nothing. If anything happens, we’ll cover all this with styrofoam.” But we didn’t have to.

 

Dmytro’s house has no air conditioning units: he claims that the walls “breathe”, and no additional cooling is needed. He also says the hemp walls really help to save money: for a house with a surface area of 150-200 square metres, using an electric boiler, you will pay up to 1000 hryvnia per month.

Serhii Kovalenkov says hemp insulation can also maintain humidity inside the house at 50-55% (bearing in mind that an optimal humidity level is anywhere from 40-60% – ed.).

– Hemp insulation is able to accumulate heat and then release it. When the boiler is running, the walls accumulate heat; when you turn off the boiler, the insulation lets the heat into the house.

 

Dome houses

One particular category of low-rise building is the dome house. In the 20th century, spherical construction in its modern form was popularised by American architect Richard Fuller. The geodesic dome structure is created thanks to specially-connected girders, meaning the volume of the room can be increased while keeping the weight of the structure to a minimum.

Serhii Kovalenkov says that Hempire was the first to try to build a dome using hemp, and now they are in demand from foreign clients.

Serhii Boiko, one of Hempire’s Ukrainian clients and the owner of a dome house in Kyiv, remembers thinking about a project like this back in 2009. He works in the construction industry too, and got interested in ecology when he had a business selling organic food:

– I was thinking entirely about health. I have four children (all daughters), and they inspire me to do something magical. After a while I realized that the shape was good, but the walls weren’t eco-friendly. So the question was, where could I get green building materials? Everything I found was cement-based.

 

According to Serhii Boiko, the hemp-insulated house can maintain the same temperature for an hour without additional heating. The 30-centimetre layer of insulation made from eco-friendly materials, which accumulates heat, also helps him save money on heating.

Serhii Kovalenkov sees this dome project as unique, as it combines two technologies:

– One dome was built from expanded polystyrene concrete (also called EPS concrete or lightweight concrete – ed.), the other from industrial hemp. It is a very symbolic building because Serhii has a construction company, and when he learned about our technology, he started to build a second dome, but using natural substances. That means we got him on our side. He crossed to the good side, to the hemp side.

 

Serhii Boiko remembers that the hemp mixture was more expensive than traditional building materials. But despite friends asking him, “Why pay more?”, he dared to try out the new blend, considering the long-term perspective:

– If you think in the short term, you don’t question any of this. But what about the children? I’ll live a little longer, and then what? It will be like: dad built a cool house, but he just used ordinary materials? 

Source: https://ukrainer.net/building-with-hemp/

Geplaatst op

Hempearth: world’ first Hempplane

Hempearth Group is set to build the world’s first plane made from and powered by HEMP. Not only is the plane set to run on HEMPEARTH Hemp Jet A Bio Fuel, but it is set to be built almost entirely from HEMP. Everything from the seats, the wings, the plane walls and even the pillows are set to contain hemp composites which the company has been developing its own over the last couple of years with a Montreal and Australian company. These Hemp aviation composites are un like anything every been done on the planet, and shall revolutionize the way many things are constructed including, aircraft, boats, cars. (Lees verder)

 

Hempearth Group is set to build the world’s first plane made from and powered by HEMP. Not only is the plane set to run on HEMPEARTH Hemp Jet A Bio Fuel, but it is set to be built almost entirely from HEMP. Everything from the seats, the wings, the plane walls and even the pillows are set to contain hemp composites which the company has been developing its own over the last couple of years with a Montreal and Australian company. These Hemp aviation composites are un like anything every been done on the planet, and shall revolutionize the way many things are constructed including, aircraft, boats, cars. (Lees verder)

Geplaatst op

Italian farmers could get €300 per hectare under new funding program

Italian hemp farmers can get up to $300 per hectare of hemp grown under a funding program recently set in motion.

The Italian government earmarked €3 million in government funds for hemp from a total €10 million aimed at advancing the development of “minor supply chains.”

“Now hemp will be able to count on the first funds to strengthen the synergies between operators in the sector, creating a system, and to improve production by focusing on research,” said Giuseppe L’Abbate, a deputy from the M5S party who has backed the hemp industry and who serves on the Agriculture Commission.

Research, grants

In addition to the farm subsidies, which offer the $300-per-hectare support payments up to a maximum 50 hectares, the hemp funding is intended for research and other grants to companies that invest in post-harvest production stages such as drying, cleaning, scutching, and packaging. Those companies must meet quality standards for hemp seed and seed-based food products.

The money was allocated after a decree signed by Minister of Agriculture, Food and Forestry Stefano Patuanelli that set criteria for allocating the €10 million for the “protection and relaunch” of supply chains in hemp, beekeeping, brewing, and nuts. The brewing sector received €3.5 million, while €3 million went to the nut sector and €500,000 for beekeeping.

The State-Regions Conference and the Ministry of Economy and Finance agreed on the criteria and set other guidelines for funding under the program.

‘Not merely playful’

“Our commitment continues because we strongly believe in this cultivation with a thousand industrial, pharmaceutical, construction and food uses and not merely playful as some would like to belittle,” L’Abbate said.

The Ministry said the funding will support research into development of new hemp varieties, THC control, mechanization and primary processing.

With reporting by Canapa Industriale

Source: https://hemptoday.net/italian-farmers-could-get-e300-per-hectare-under-new-funding-program/

Geplaatst op

Italian researcher says stalks from polluted soil OK for building, energy

Hemp grown to clean up polluted soil could be used for hempcrete construction and to produce energy, with virtually no health risks, an Italian researcher has suggested.

Vito Gallo, Professor of Chemistry at the Polytechnic of Bari, said the hemp plant’s performance in the phyto-remediation (phyto-purification) process leaves only trace amounts of any pollutants behind.

“Hemp allows a sort of dilution of metals in the biomass and this results in material that, in principle, presents very limited or even no health risks,” Gallo, who is also coordinator of BIO SP.HE.RE., a hemp-specific research initiative, told Canapa Industriale.

Gallo suggested that scientific organizations could get together to set acceptable levels of concentration of any foreign substances in downstream hemp products.

Robust research

Italian stakeholders are working on significant research regarding phyto-remediation, in which specific plants are grown both to clean up pollutants such as heavy metals, and to stimulate the degradation of organic compounds to enrich the soil. Hemp has proven itself to be highly effective in both roles, as Italian scientists have set out to further document.

The question has always been what would be done with the adulterated hemp once it’s harvested from polluted fields.

Italian researchers have posited that most of the heavy metals absorbed by hemp are stored in the roots and leaves of the plant, leaving only miniscule amounts in the hemp stalk, and continue to study that process. 

Hemp and soil

The research in Italy builds on studies from as far back as 2002, when researchers from the University of Wuppertal and the Faserinstitut of Bremen, Germany, showed that hemp plants sown for remediation collected most heavy metals in the leaves, while plant stalks were virtually unaffected by contamination. A later study in India in 2014 identified hemp as a promising tool for the hyperaccumulation of heavy metals such as arsenic, lead, mercury, copper, chromium and nickel. Further studies since then have underpinned both analyses.

In addition to using the hemp stalks for hempcrete, hemp biomass can be burned for energy. With the ashes collected under controlled conditions, the metals can be extracted and re-used, Gallo said.

Sustainable new system

“The use of hemp for phyto-remediation would not only lead to the creation of a new system of land use linked to environmental protection, but also to the creation of jobs and sustainable resources for the community, according to the principles of the green economy and bio-economy,” said Marcello Colao, a biologist at the Italian non-profit Association of Apulian Environmental Biologists (ABAP), which is also studying phyto-remediation.

Colao is directing the GREEN project (Generate Resources And New Economies), which is studying different varieties of hemp and ranking them for their phyto-remediation capacity. That research, in partnership with the region of Puglia government, is part of a broader initiative that is researching hemp for its potential in sustainable development and carbon sequestration, and developing strategies for improved agricultural management practices.

Also supported by the Puglia government, BIO SP.HE.RE, the project under Gallo’s direction, is studying a mixture of micro-algae and hemp to see how it can enhance the phyto-purification of both water and soil. The researchers have reported that lab analysis showed the mix facilitated growth of hemp plants in polluted soil, thereby speeding up the phyto-remediation process; hemp plants were particularly effective at absorbing cadmium, nickel and zinc, the team said.

Geplaatst op Geef een reactie

The Decentralized Human Organisation (DHO)

The DHO is in many ways similar to a DAO (Decentralized Autonomous Organisation) Except in that it places the humans that comprise it in the center. Opposed to trying to automate humans away, the DHO seeks to automate the majority of tasks to empower humans to more effectively and joyfully collaborate.

Welcoming Hypha’s Decentralized Human Organisation

 

It’s said that the next wave of enlightenment won’t be individuals but a group of people coming together with a deep, committed and purposeful vision.

We’re living through the modern day Renaissance, while simultaneously experiencing peaks of ecological, political, economic and social crises. Future societies will look back and say that the “Dark Ages” hadn’t quite ended yet.

The Dark Ages are almost over.

We’re at the dawn of welcoming in new systems of governance, thought and value distribution. Human awareness and consciousness is shifting from a local awareness to a global awareness.

“We’re not defending nature; we’re nature defending itself.” — Unknown

You are a part of this transition. Your awareness comes with the duty to bring your unique perspectives and gifts to this new paradigm.

It’s important not to have a revolution.

A revolution is merely a shift in power from one group of people to another within the same paradigm.

This isn’t a revolution for some. This is a Renaissance for all of humanity.

We’ll need to navigate this new terrain with impeccable integrity and dedication to this new paradigm.

Otherwise we may revert into old systems of exploitation and domination and merely walk away with a revolution.

The Decentralized Human Organisation (DHO)

The DHO is in many ways similar to a DAO (Decentralized Autonomous Organisation) Except in that it places the humans that comprise it in the center. Opposed to trying to automate humans away, the DHO seeks to automate the majority of tasks to empower humans to more effectively and joyfully collaborate.

The old paradigm told us to show up, punch the ticket, appease the boss and generally do what we’re told.

In the DHO there are no bosses. You are accountable to your role and the other team members. But, most of all, you’re accountable to your purpose, your passion, your personal growth and your gifts.

It’s your responsibility (your ability to respond) to identify your gifts, create a role that best empowers you to share these gifts, then contribute to the creation of a new paradigm.

No one can tell you how to do this, what your gifts are, or how you’d like to receive value for your gifts. This is up to you to decide.

It is up to the other members of the DAO to decide whether or not to receive these gifts. But, it’s not up to them to tell you how to give, how to contribute, or what your purpose is.

This is going to be awkward at first as we learn to take our first steps in this new paradigm of self-empowerment and freedom.

We’ll need to exercise our atrophied communication and relationship skills.

Skills that we had as children when we — without hesitation — spoke truthfully, expressing our thoughts, concerns, opinions and emotions.

This new paradigm will require us to fully show up, wounds and all.

What you make of this structure is up you.

Success here isn’t just making (literally) money. Success is changing money. It’s changing how and what we value as a society.

Sure, there is enormous value to be made and shared. However, true success is a thriving planet, with a purpose driven society where people are deeply and truly nourished. Welcome to the dawn of of these new systems. We’re building them now and Hypha DHO is a live experiment.

DHO = Decentralised Human/Holacratic/Holonic Organism/Organization

The DHO scales using nested (holonic) circles and breaks down decision making and role patterns that emerged from the practices and organisational patterns of Holacracy. We use the term organism because the DHO is a structure that allows human collaboration to behave as the cells of our bodies do. Our bodies have no rigid hierarchy, no top-down control mechanisms but are able to coordinate actives on a massive scale to create an entirely new being — a human. The same is true for the DHO. What this new being looks like us up to us.

Overview of the DHO

The DHO: dho.hypha.earth (site)
Rieki Cordon 

August 13, 2019

Geplaatst op

Hemp fuel

Hemp fuels
Environmentally friendly fuel sources

The basics: Hemp can provide two types of fuel.
1.  Hemp biodiesel – made from the oil of the (pressed) hemp seed.
2.  Hemp ethanol/methanol – made from the fermented stalk.

To clarify further, ethanol is made from such things as grains, sugars, starches, waste paper and forest products, and methanol is made from woody/pulp matter. Using processes such as gasification, acid hydrolysis and enzymes, hemp can be used to make both ethanol and methanol.

In this day of oil wars, peak oil (and the accompanying soaring prices), climate change and oil spills such as the one in the gulf by BP, it’s more important than ever to promote sustainable alternatives such as hemp ethanol.  Hemp turns out to be the most cost-efficient and valuable of all the fuel crops we could grow on a scale that could fuel the world.

And as it turns out, the whole reason for hemp prohibition – and alcohol prohibition – may have been a fuel the realization that OIL production is threatened by any competing fuel source, especially one that requires no modifications to your car!

What is Hemp Biodiesel?
Hemp biodiesel is the name for a variety of ester based oxygenated fuels made from hemp oil.  The concept of using vegetable oil as an engine fuel dates back to 1895 when Dr. Rudolf Diesel developed the first diesel engine to run on vegetable oil. Diesel demonstrated his engine at the World Exhibition in Paris in 1900 using peanut oil as fuel.  Hemp biodiesel come from the pressing of the hemp seeds to extract the oil.  Through a process explained here , hemp biodiesel can be made.

Hemp biodiesel can be made from domestically produced, renewable oilseed crops such as hemp. With over 30 million successful U.S. road miles hemp biodiesel could be the answer to our cry for renewable fuel sources.  Learning more  about renewable fuels does not mean we should not cut back on consumption but does help address the environmental affects of our choices.  There is more to hemp as a renewable fuel source than you know

Why Hemp Biodiesel?

  • Biodiesel is the only alternative fuel that runs in any conventional, unmodified diesel engine.
  • It can be stored anywhere that petroleum diesel fuel is stored. Biodiesel is safe to handle and transport because it is as biodegradable as sugar, 10 times less toxic than table salt, and has a high flashpoint of about 300 F compared to petroleum diesel fuel, which has a flash point of 125 F.
  • Biodiesel can be made from domestically produced, renewable oilseed crops such as hemp.
  • Biodiesel is a proven fuel with over 30 million successful US road miles, and over 20 years of use in Europe.
  • When burned in a diesel engine, biodiesel replaces the exhaust odor of petroleum diesel with the pleasant smell of hemp, popcorn or french fries.
  • Biodiesel is the only alternative fuel in the US to complete EPA Tier I Health Effects Testing under section 211(b) of the Clean Air Act, which provide the most thorough inventory of environmental and human health effects attributes that current technology will allow.
  • Biodiesel is 11% oxygen by weight and contains no sulfur.
  • The use of biodiesel can extend the life of diesel engines because it is more lubricating than petroleum diesel fuel, while fuel consumption, auto ignition, power output, and engine torque are relatively unaffected by biodiesel.
  • The Congressional Budget Office, Department of Defense, US Department of Agriculture, and others have determined that biodiesel is the low cost alternative fuel option for fleets to meet requirements of the Energy Policy Act.
Geplaatst op

Medical v Recreational Cannabis: Policy Considerations – Part B.

Introduction: Cannabis Policy

In the concluding remarks of Part A, we noted that the very setting of the dichotomy along with the stereotypical connotations associated with each term restricts and hides important aspects of the debate. But how and why, did this way of framing the debate come about? The distinction became increasingly popular in the mouths of policy makers and people alike following a very simple conscious and subconscious observation: Cannabis policy needs reform. The latter was arrived at after years of failed repressive policies, failing on two main domains: 1) Public Health 2) Criminological considerations and prison population. It is within this context that novel approaches and policies, as well as public perception of the issue, have increasingly been centred on the ‘Medical v Recreational’ distinction.

Public Health & Harms Reduction

 A notable recent example of policy-analysis that resists the ‘Medical v Recreational’ temptation is a report originating from France (April 2016). Following a public debate in cooperation with La Direction Génerale de la Santé, the report tackles the issue for all ‘substances that can potentially lead to addictive behaviours’. It argues for a decriminalisation of all such substances (including Cannabis) regardless of nature of use, focusing instead on a ‘Risks & Harms Reduction Principle’ (RdRD). The strengths of such approaches are best appreciated form a Public Health perspective. However they fail to address another large-scale socio-economic aspect, leaving aside the issue of re-articulating the existing demand and providing adequate models of distribution*. On the other hand, they offer the best short-term approach on how to begin tackling the existing situation with its determinate and known parameters. It is interesting to examine some assumptions of the ‘Medical v Recreational’ distinction and their impacts in terms of distribution and economic activity.

Cannabis Legislation Models: Use, Distribution & Demand

It is often taken for granted that the ‘Medical v Recreational’ dichotomy maps exactly onto the ‘Regulated v Unregulated (Market)’ distinction. It is true that ‘Medical Cannabis’ (in our western understanding of the word ‘medical’) implies a highly regulated market and distribution mechanism. However it doesn’t follow that ‘Recreational Cannabis’ implies necessarily an unregulated market free of a ‘Risks & Harms Reduction Principle’. A parallel illuminating example is the tobacco industry – taxes, limited marketing, restrictions on points of sale, age etc. From a somewhat sceptical standpoint one could argue for a legalisation and regulation of Cannabis exclusively for medical purposes. Arguing on the basis of a fully regulated market along the lines of the existing Healthcare & Pharmaceutical models, stressing that such an approach is supposed to only benefit people that could potentially gain actual medical improvements on their existing conditions, thus implicitly taking the ‘Risks & Harms Reduction Principle’ to its maximum application. However there are drawback to such restrictive policies. The main concern of the above model is that it doesn’t address the so-called recreational demand for cannabis that exists in our (European) societies. Paralleling western Healthcare Models, ‘Medical Cannabis’ would most likely be available to ‘eligible’ patients on prescription, based on a set of criteria. The very high proportion of users who would not fit those criteria would still drive the ‘underground’ demand, thus maintaining the black market and its criminal organisations in place. Furthermore, it still criminalises a high proportion of users, thus failing to solve another societal issue (criminalisation of cannabis users is often linked to marginalisation which leads to violent behaviours). Restrictive Medical Cannabis models also run the risk of excluding patients that could potentially benefit from cannabinoid consumption but do not fit the official criteria for prescription. It would be a mistake to try and fit a versatile plant like cannabis to our traditional Healthcare Distribution Models. There is also an argument to be made on human right’s grounds in the sense of the right to self-determination and self-care – allowing people to treat themselves the way they see fit. Furthermore, cannabinoid consumption is liable to bring overall improvements on quality of life which are not necessarily perceived from a purely bio-medical standpoint. Rigorous and well-funded scientific research is necessary to further our understanding of the plant and its beneficial applications. However, the implementation of those scientific findings into prescriptive, normative policies is a very different issue. A Hybrid Model is therefore necessary to provide value for society as a whole, addressing public health concerns as well as criminological and socio-economic considerations and at the same time integrating cannabis into established medical and scientific practices. There are several questions that need answering though, pertaining with the distribution and Harms-Reduction principle of use that falls outside explicitly medical bounds. Distribution in that case can take several forms. Which is actually adopted in particular instances is highly dependent on cultural factors as well as goal-oriented considerations such as economic activity, employment, human rights, use reduction, public health etc. Approaches can vary from favouring small individual cultivation models to extremely liberal Colorado-Dispenser systems depending on local culture and perceived objectives of the policies (of course, in the majority of countries cannabis is still outright illegal). A liberal proponent of cannabis legalisation might take, however, a different approach. Favouring the legalisation of cannabis simpliciter, the argument makes the point that in such scenario cannabis would effectively be available for any use (including medical), avoiding any discrimination based on usage and/or outcome. The merits of this view are to be found in its simplicity as well as its inherent non-discriminatory commitment – traits which ought to be transposed to actual policies. It nonetheless skips over some potential pitfalls. Assuming that there is legitimate medical use for cannabis there need to be social-security mechanisms for reimbursement of treatment. This issue is notoriously problematic and a ‘simple legalisation’ policy does not guarantee the production of cannabis products and treatment procedures that are liable to be recognised by insurance bodies (both public and private) as reimbursable. This would lead to a major social injustice which is precisely what the above argument was purporting to dispense with. Furthermore, proper medical accompaniment, expertise and research should be available to those explicitly medical users that wish to access it. Again, there is no guarantee that such tangible and intangible social goods will emerge out of minimalist policies.

Medical v Recreational: What to make of it?

As we have previously argued, the ‘Medical v Recreational’ distinction cannot be effected by the plant in isolation, barring any contextualisation with actual usage and individual biological interaction. Even when usage is defined, the relationship is not straightforward considering that medical use can have recreational effects and vice versa. However the distinction is somewhat illuminating on a policy level – not in a descriptive / ontological sense, but rather as decent model to represent actual use-patterns. It helps bring into focus some issues of social justice, human rights and criminological considerations as argued above. There is one direct way of effecting this distinction, namely in the event whereby a person is explicitly treating a serious a recognised disease / condition with cannabis. In that case it can unambiguously be labelled as ‘Medical’ and enjoy the same status as other medical treatments. In Part C. of this series of articles, a brief overview of some actual European examples will be presented.

*This is not aimed to be a severe criticism. The report is very thorough within its intended scope and provides detailed arguments for its conclusions, particularly in terms of Justice, Public Health & Safety, Employment, Social Life and Education.

 

, , , , , ,